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What is the GPCI?

Given the global competition between cities, the Global Power City Index (GPCI) evaluates and ranks the major cities of the world according to their “magnetism,” or their comprehensive power to attract people, capital, and enterprises from around the world. It does so through measuring 6 functions—Economy, Research and Development, Cultural Interaction, Livability, Environment, and Accessibility—providing a multidimensional ranking. The GPCI is able to grasp the strengths, weaknesses, and challenges of global cities in a continuously changing world not only through a ranking, but also through analyzing that ranking’s specific components.

Download the latest GPCI-2023 report

Target Cities

Executive Summary


London, #1 position in the comprehensive ranking, increased its score for the first time in past three years. London’s strengths are driven by its cultural attractions and international airline network, with #1 position in the Cultural Interaction and #4 position in Accessibility. This city also maintains high rankings in other functions, with its lowest ranking in the Environment is #11, indicating that its strengths are wellbalanced.

New York
New York

New York was trailed by London in the comprehensive ranking score this year. While New York is ranked #1 in Economy and R&D as in previous years, it has dropped to #28 in Environment, and has not improved its ranking in Livability function, which is ranked #38, the lowest of the six functions. It is characteristic of New York that there is such a large difference between its strengths and weaknesses.


Tokyo, which has been closely trailed by #4 Paris since last year, maintained its #3 position in the comprehensive ranking by a narrow margin. This year Tokyo improved in the Livability by increasing its “Cost of Living” score as well as the total score in the Cultural Interaction. However, in the Economy, it fell to #10, and it shows a clear division between growth and decline in the different functions.

Score Deviation Fluctuation of Top 10 Cities

London (#1), which had been stagnant since the COVID-19 epidemic, recovered and pulled ahead of New York (#2). Tokyo (#3) and Paris (#4) both lost ground and did not reverse their rankings while Singapore (#5), Amsterdam (#6), and Dubai (#8) showed notable growth.


GPCI Simulator

    Related Research
    GPCI-2023 Financial Centers

    The Global Power City Index - Financial Centers (GPCI-Financial Centers), we evaluate the competitiveness of cities as international financial centers from a multifaceted perspective by adding “Finance” function to the six functions of the Global Power City Index (Economy, Research and Development, Cultural Interaction, Livability, Environment, and Accessibility). This allows us to uncover the characteristics, strengths, and weaknesses of each city as a financial center within the global financial system and rank them.

    City Perception Survey




    "Global Power City Index 2023 Summary" includes the details of Comprehensive Ranking and Function-Specific Ranking, list of indicators and definitions, Actor Evaluation.



    Release Date:15 January, 2024
    Bilingual (English and Japanese)
    Print Edition: JPY 20,350 (tax included)
    PDF: JPY 16,500 (tax included)

    The Global Power City Index YEARBOOK 2023 is a full report of the GPCI-2023, providing a detailed account of its methodology and results. The city profiles analyze each of the 48 target cities of the GPCI and illustrate the city’s strengths and weaknesses in reference to the score and ranking of the 70 indicators. The detailed definitions and sources of the indicators are also included in the book.

    Press Resources

    • Press Release

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    • Summary

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    • Score Deviation Fluctuation

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    • Comprehensive Ranking

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    • Function-Specific Ranking

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    • Target Cities

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    If you have any questions about the Global Power City Index, please contact


    For more information about the Global Power City Index, please see the Summary or order the YEARBOOK. You can download the PDF version of the Summary below. The YEARBOOK provides specific details on the methods of research, definition of indicators, lists of data sources, and scores and ranking analysis of each city.


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